The Challenge of Level of Development in 4D/BIM Simulation Across AEC Project Lifecyle. A Case Study
4D modeling has been an applied research area for around two decades since the first seminal works in the nineties. In the last years, a number of case studies have been published both for demonstrating the various applications of 4D and for assessing technological propositions. However, in most papers only little place is given to the particular content of 4D models. In parallel, following the growing implementation of Building Information Modeling, 4D modeling process is usually recognized as a "BIM use". In BIM implementations and protocols, the Level Of Development of datasets is a fundamental issue. This paper describes the application of two distinct "4D uses" conducted on a single pilot project. They aim to assess the levels of graphical and temporal details required for the implemented uses. The authors finally discuss the diversity of 4D uses with 4D models, both planned or ad-hoc, as well as the logical understanding related to 4D LOD.
4D simulation; Construction scheduling; BIM; LOD; Case study research